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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 20  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 10-14

Management of gustilo and anderson type i and ii open tibial fracture using delayed primary nailing: An assessment of clinical and radiological outcome


1 Department of Surgery, Barau Dikko Teaching Hospital, Kaduna, Nigeria
2 Alliance Hospital, Area 11 Garki, Abuja, Nigeria
3 Department of orthopaedic and trauma, National Orthopaedic Hospital, Dala Kano, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Kabiru Salisu
Department of Surgery, Barau Dikko Teaching Hospital, Kaduna
Nigeria
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/njot.njot_35_20

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Background: Open tibial fracture is one of the most common trauma emergencies. Marked delay in presentation is noticed in developing countries, especially sub-Saharan Africa due to poor pre-hospital care, presentation to traditional bone setters and out-of-pocket payment of services. Primary nailing at the time of initial debridement was noticed to have a high prevalence of infection in some series. Delayed primary nailing after a period of debridement and wound care was found to be safe with less complication rate in this study. Objective: The objective of this study is to determine the clinical and radiological outcome of management of Gustilo and Anderson (GA) Type I and II open tibial fracture using delayed primary nailing, especially in patient with delayed presentation. Methodology: Twenty-one (21) patients with open (GA I and II) tibial diaphyseal fracture were recruited into this study. They had initial debridement and a period of wound care before subsequent nailing. All patients had tibial interlocking nailing 5–9 days post-injury using open technique with aid of the external jig system. The patients were followed up for 9 months. Clinical outcome was assessed using Johner and Wruh's criteria at 6 months. The radiologic outcome was assessed using Radiologic union scale for tibia fracture (RUST). Results: The M: F was 4:1 with a mean age of 37.24 ± 13.8 years. Road traffic accident accounted for 85.7% (n = 18). Marked delayed presentation was noted, only four patients (19.1%) presented within 6 h from injury. GA Type II open fracture was the most prevalent fracture type accounting for 81.9% (n = 17). The clinical outcome using Johner and Wuh's criteria at 6 months post-nailing showed 18 patients (86%) had excellent and good outcome. Only one patient (4.8%) had poor outcome. RUST was used to assess the rate of union following the tibial nailing. Fractures were scored at 6 weeks, 12 weeks, 6 months and 9 months. Ten patients (47.6%) were united at 6 weeks, whereas 21 (100%) had achieved union at 9 months. The average time to radiologic union was 17.3 weeks. Seven patients (33.3% n = 7) had complications. Anterior knee pain, superficial surgical site infection (SSI) and delayed union were the complication recorded. Conclusion: Delayed primary nailing of open tibial fracture produces good to excellent outcome with acceptable complication rate, especially SSI.


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